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Over the summer she pieces together his story. Having heard stories about Manifest, Abilene is disappointed to find that it's just a dried-up, worn-out old town. But her disappointment quickly turns to excitement when she discovers a hidden cigar box full of mementos, including some old letters that mention a spy known as the Rattler.

These mysterious letters send Abilene and her new friends, Lettie and Ruthanne, on an honest-to-goodness spy hunt, even though they are warned to "Leave Well Enough Alone. It seems that Manifest's history is full of colorful and shadowy characters--and long-held secrets. The more Abilene hears, the more determined she is to learn just what role her father played in that history.

And as Manifest's secrets are laid bare one by one, Abilene begins to weave her own story into the fabric of the town. B95 can feel it: a stirring in his bones and feathers. It's time. Today is the day he will once again cast himself into the air, spiral upward into the clouds, and bank into the wind. He wears a black band on his lower right leg and an orange flag on his upper left, bearing the laser inscription B Scientists call him the Moonbird. With their house in foreclosure, sisters India and Mouse and brother Finn are sent to stay with an uncle in Colorado until their mother can join them, but when the plane lands, the children are welcomed by cheering crowds to a strange place where each of them has a perfect house and a clock that is ticking down the time.

When Ivan, a gorilla who has lived for years in a down-and-out circus-themed mall, meets Ruby, a baby elephant that has been added to the mall, he decides that he must find her a better life. Bestselling author Applegate presents an unforgettable and uplifting tween animal fantasy that explores the power of friendship, art, and hope with humor and touching poignancy, highlighted by occasional black and white illustrations. In the summer of , after traveling from Brooklyn to Oakland, California, to spend a month with the mother they barely know, eleven-year-old Delphine and her two younger sisters arrive to a cold welcome as they discover that their mother, a dedicated poet and printer, is resentful of the intrusion of their visit and wants them to attend a nearby Black Panther summer camp.

After heartbreaking betrayal, Carley is sent to live with a foster family and struggles with opening herself up to their love. When her father suddenly quits his job, the almost-ten-year-old, friendless Penny and her neglectful parents leave their privileged life in the city for a ramshackle property in the eccentric town of Thrush Junction, Tennessee. Abby Lovitt is put in charge of training the expensive and haughty horse Pie in the Sky when his owner refuses. While trying to get a hold on him, she must deal with the new challenges, both good and bad, that come with being a freshman in high school in 's Northern California.

Jacob and Will Reckless have looked out for each other ever since their father disappeared, but when Jacob discovers a magical mirror that transports him to a warring world populated by witches, giants, and ogres, he keeps it to himself until Will follows him one day, with dire consequences. In this extraordinary novel in letters, an Indian immigrant girl in New York City and a Kentucky coal miner's son find strength and perspective by sharing their true selves across the miles.

Meena and River have a lot in common: fathers forced to work away from home to make ends meet, grandmothers who mean the world to them, and faithful dogs. As Meena's family studies for citizenship exams and River's town faces devastating mountaintop removal, this unlikely pair become pen pals, sharing thoughts and, as their camaraderie deepens, discovering common ground in their disparate experiences.

With honesty and humor, Meena and River bridge the miles between them, creating a friendship that inspires bravery and defeats cultural misconceptions. Narrated in two voices, each voice distinctly articulated by a separate gifted author, this chronicle of two lives powerfully conveys the great value of being and having a friend and the joys of opening our lives to others who live beneath the same sun.

In , eleven-year-old Terpsichore's father signs up for President Roosevelt's Palmer Colony project, uprooting the family from Wisconsin to become pioneers in Alaska, where Terpsichore refuses to let rough conditions and first impressions get in the way of her grand adventure. When the state of Maine threatens to shut down their island's one-room schoolhouse because of dwindling enrollment, eleven-year-old Tess, a strong believer in luck, and her family take in a trumpet-playing foster child, to increase the school's population.

With the first ice skim on a sheep pail so thin it breaks when touched, one family's winter begins in earnest. Next comes ice like panes of glass. And eventually, skating ice! Take a literary skate over field ice and streambed, through sleeping orchards and beyond.

COWGIRLS - par les French Cowgirls (Séverine Fillion - Chrystel Durand & Texasval)

The first ice, the second ice, the third ice. Twelve kinds of ice are carved into twenty nostalgic vignettes, illustrated in elegant detail by the award-winning Barbara McClintock. This lovely, sparkling gem of a book is on many professional "Best Books" lists of Due to an administrative mix-up, troublemaker Donovan Curtis is sent to the Academy of Scholastic Distinction, a special program for gifted and talented students, after pulling a major prank at middle school. Traces the hard life, filled with losses, adversity, and adventure, of Amos, son of a trapper and dowser, from when his mother dies giving birth to him until , when he himself has grown up and has a son of his own.

Complemented by vibrantly colorful illustrations, a picture book celebration of America's diversity explores the nation's unique blend of culture, history, ideas and determination. Not all scientists live where they work, harvest their own subjects, or use information passed down from generation after generation of Inupiaq Eskimos to help learn about the bowhead whale.

Arctic whale scientist Craig George is the son of children's author Jean Craighead George, and out on the ice with the whales and the whalers in Barrow, Alaska is where this Arctic whale scientist works. He has studied them for nearly thirty years and the mysteries these creatures hold never fail to amaze him. Beautifully done!

In a desperate attempt for survival, a peaceful civilization on a faraway planet besieged by a dark lord sends its most precious gift across the cosmos into the lunchbox of Tommy Pepper, sixth grader, of Plymouth, Massachusetts. Thirteen-year-old Olivene Love gets tangled up in a murder mystery when her itinerant preaching family arrives in the small town of Binder, Arkansas in Loving family, loving, close, respectful, distinctive characters. Also vivid setting; great characterization.

A fictionalized account of Bill "Doc" Key, a former slave who became a veterinarian, trained his horse, Jim Key, to recognize letters and numbers and to perform in skits around the country, and moved the nation toward a belief in treating animals humanely. Includes an author's note. Zulaikha, a thirteen-year-old girl in Afghanistan, faces a series of frightening but exhilirating changes in her life as she defies her father and secretly meets with an old woman who teaches her to read, her older sister gets married, and American troops offer her surgery to fix her disfiguring cleft lip.

Explores the drama and history of one of the West's premier rodeo and cultural events, the Miles City Bucking Horse Sale. Begun in as a way to sell "spoiled" and unruly ranch horses for use in rodeos, the sale has evolved into a four-day celebration that features horse racing, country music, a parade, and rodeo riding. Includes more than 60 photographs. Skip Navigation. Advanced Search. Search Articles. Business Genealogy. Search Events. All Events Classes Programs Storytimes. Search Site.

Smashwords – Raising a Cowgirl – a book by Harley McRide

Library Documents Site Map. My Account. What's New. How do I? Recommended by Marian Kids. He has never been the tallest. Or the best at gym. Or the greatest artist. Or the most musical. In fact, Albie has a long list of the things he's not very good at, as his parents keep reminding him. But then Albie gets a new babysitter, Calista, who helps him figure out all of the things he is good at and how he can take pride in himself. This contemporary novel is an exceptional depiction of an unforgettable character.

Aguilar Are we alone? Or could life on alien worlds really exist? David A.

1. World’s Oldest Continuous Rodeo, Arizona

Aguilar, space artist extraordinaire, shows readers what creatures living on extrasolar planets might be like, using real science and stunning otherworldly illustration. Just as Earth creatures have adapted to use the air, water, gravity, and other elements of Earth, creatures on planets orbiting distant stars would adapt to their environments. In Alien Worlds, David A. The flank strap is applied by the stock contractor or his designate. The arenas used in professional bull riding vary. Some are rodeo arenas that are used only for bull riding and other rodeo events.

Others are event centers that play host to many different sports. Common to all arenas is a large, open area that gives the bulls, bull riders, and bull fighters plenty of room to maneuver. The area is fenced, usually 6 to 7 feet high, to protect the audience from escaped bulls. There are generally exits on each corner of the arena for riders to get out of the way quickly. Riders can also hop onto the fence to avoid danger.

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One end of the arena contains the bucking chutes from which the bulls are released. There is also an exit chute where the bulls can exit the arena. In the United States and Canada, most professional bull riders start out riding in high school rodeo or other junior associations. Bull riders compete in these organizations as they are climbing the ladder to the professional ranks and to supplement their income. In Mexico, there are a number of American-style bull riding organizations.

The latter of which is Mexico's top organization that includes all of American Rodeo's standard events, including bull riding. There are also a number of regional semi-pro associations. There are approximately rodeos and bushmen's carnivals held annually across Australia. At most of these events bull riding is one of the featured competitions.

Initially bullocks and steers were used for roughriding events and these were owned by local graziers that lent them for these events. Nowadays bulls are used for the open events and stock contractors supply the various roughriding associations. Contract stock has produced a more uniform range of bucking stock which is also quieter to handle. The competitions are run and scored in a similar style to that used in the United States. In May the National Rodeo Council of Australia NRCA was formed to promote and further the sport of rodeo and has represented the following associations, which also control bull riding:.

There are strict standards for the selection, care and treatment of rodeo livestock, arenas, plus equipment requirements and specifications. Chainsaw was one of Australia's most famous bucking bulls. Only nine contestants scored on him and he won the Australian national title of Bull of the Year a world record eight times during to Some of Australia's leading bull riders conduct bull riding clinics to assist learners and novice riders. Rodeo is also popular in country regions of New Zealand where approximately 32 rodeos, which include bull riding contests, are held each summer.

One source of controversy is the flank strap. The flank strap is placed around a bull's flank, just in front of the hind legs, to encourage bucking. Critics say that the flank strap encircles or otherwise binds the genitals of the bull. However, the flank strap is anatomically impossible to place over the testicles. Many point out that the bull's genes are valuable and that there is a strong economic incentive to keep the animal in good reproductive health. Further, particularly in the case of bulls, an animal that is sick and in pain usually will not want to move at all, will not buck as well, and may even lie down in the chute or ring rather than buck.

Critics also claim that electric cattle prods "hot shots" are used to injure and torture bulls, while supporters of bull riding claim that the cattle prod simply gets the bull out of the chute quickly and is only a moderate irritation due to the thickness of the animal's hide. However, in smaller associations, a cattle prod is still sometimes used to ensure that the animal leaves the chute as soon as the rider nods their head. Cattle prods are not allowed by any major association.

Spurs are also a source of controversy, though modern rodeo rules place strict regulations on the type and use of spurs and participants point out that they are a tool commonly used in other non-rodeo equestrian disciplines. Spurs used in bull riding do not have a fixed rowel, nor can they be sharpened. The PBR currently allows only two types of rowels to ensure the safety of the animals.

Bull riding has the highest rate of injury to humans of any rodeo sport. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. National Geographic News. Retrieved July 4, Journal of Sport History. Issue 1. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved February 17, Professional Bull Riders. Archived from the original on December 8, Retrieved January 30, Retrieved January 8, Bernstein - Google Books". Retrieved January 28, Retrieved March 1, Research Gate. Retrieved June 20, Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. Professional Rodeo Cowboy Association.

Retrieved October 2, Retrieved Bits and pieces, what we may call motifs, characters, topoi, plots, and images, were carried on and retold during the rise of early European civilization in Latin and vernacular languages and in many cases written down mainly by male scribes, many of them religious. Gradually, as tales were used to serve speciic func- tions in court entertainment, homes, and taverns, on public squares, ields, and work places, and during rituals such as birth, marriage, death, harvest, initiation, and so on, they were distinguished by the minds of the members of a community and given special attention.

Engendered as cultural artifacts they formed generic traits that made them appropri- ate for certain occasions. The cultural requirements were never so strict to prevent the tales from mixing with one another, becoming mixed, or borrowing from one another. There was never a pure oral wonder tale, myth, legend, or fable.

But as humans became more discerning and their brains developed the cognitive capacity to recognize, reine, and retain speciic narratives that spoke to the conditions in their environ- ment about survival, they began to group, categorize, and shape diverse stories artistically to make better and more eficient use of them. All of this occurred long before print culture came to dominate artistic pro- duction in Europe. Numerous scholars have set their studies of oral and literary tales in a sociohistorical context to arrive at deinitions, categories, and types of the fairy tale.

The focal points of these studies and their conclusions vary a great deal, and some even contradict one another; yet, they all historicize the conception of the fairy tale as a literary genre. Though it might be more prudent to use the term public representation to talk about the classical fairy tales, I shall continue to use the term meme in the broadest possible sense to denote a particular fairy tale that has been canonized in the Western world and become so memorable that it appears to be transmitted natu- rally by our minds to communicate information that alerts us to pay attention to a speciic given situation on which our lives may depend.

As we shall see, the symbolic order established by literary fairy tales is not static, but it is certainly marked continually by recognizable recurring motifs, topoi, and conventions and has been framed by male hegemonic concerns.

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Within the borders of the oral and written frame there is a dialogue concerning gender-oriented ritu- als, social initiations, or the appropriate manner of behavior in speciic situations. It communicates information. It selects that which has become relevant in a commu- nity to inform members of that community what has become crucial for adaptation to the environment in the most effective manner possible that might be entertaining and instructive.

The fairy tale acts through language to depict all kinds of issues and debates that concern socialization and civilization. Once a fairy tale has gelled or been artistically conceived so that it is ostentative, it seeks to perpetuate itself indiscriminately. Like the selish gene, a fairy tale as meme is concerned with its own per- petuation and will adapt to changes and conlicts in the environment. Conditioned by fairy tales, we insist that the fairy tale act out these conlicts through conventionalized language and codes that stimulate a play with ideas.

We act as though fairy tales have always been with us. But this is not the case. There was a point in time when literary fairy tales were not expected and used in the manner that we expect and use them. These we may call speech genres. Bakhtin makes a distinction between primary simple and secondary speech genres complex.

During the process of their formation, they absorb and digest various primary simple genres that have taken form in unmediated speech communion. These pri- mary genres are altered and assume a special character when they enter into complex ones. Yet, this is the value of a secondary genre like the literary fairy tale: it preserves elements of the primary speech genre and enters into a dialogue with it as it transforms itself into something new and more complex.

As Bakhtin states: [T]his question of the concept of the speech addressee how the speaker or writer senses and imagines him is of immense signiicance in literary history. Each epoch, each literary trend and literary-artistic style, each literary genre within an epoch or trend, is typiied by its own special concepts of the addressee of the literary work, a special sense and under- standing of its reader, listener, public, or people. A historical study of changes in these concepts would be an interesting and important task.

But in order to develop it productively, the statement of the problem itself would have to be theoretically clear. Each of these authors used a frame tale in which storytellers shared their tales with listeners, who were also tellers, and all their tales were intended for a community of readers and tellers. In addressing a particu- lar speech community, writers seek to use, explore, and validate their own speech acts as they assume a conceptual and aesthetic whole.

Therefore, we must ask, if we want to understand the beginnings of this literary genre, what constituted the fairy tale as a secondary speech genre? What must our focus be if we are to understand the historical origins and development of the literary fairy tale?

Such genres exist above all in the great and multifari- ous sphere of everyday oral communication, including the most familiar and most intimate. As a pri- mary genre, the oral folk tale circulated hundreds, if not thousands, of years before it came to be registered in script and was formed and shaped according to semantic and syntagic rules and audience expectations. When authors began writing the tales, however, the narratives did not become fully generic and memetic as a literary genre because a liter- ary genre is also an institution.

To be fully developed a genre has to be instituted in a society; that is, it must be accepted and used by different groups as a speciic mode of entertainment, communication, and social- ization. It must also have effective modes of publicity, dissemination, and reception that will enable the genre to take root in society. Tzvetan Todorov Like Bakhtin, Todorov believes that a genre begins as a speech act and undergoes various transformations before becoming institutional- ized.

A new genre is always the transformation of one or many older genres: by inversion, by deplacement, by combination. There has never been a literature without genres. It is a system in the process of continual transformation, and the question of the ori- gins can never leave historically the terrain of the genres themselves. He maintains that a discourse is made up of enunciated sentences or enunciated words, and like Bakhtin, he argues that its meaning depends on the context of enunciation. In other words, a discourse is always by necessity a speech act un acte de parole constituting a text.

If one designates genres as classes of texts, this designation occurs in a meta- discourse about genres in history that has, as its aim, the establishment of properties, traits, and laws of the text.

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In other words, genres are nothing but the codiication of discursive properties. These properties reveal the semantic aspect of the text meaning , the syntactic aspect of the text relation of the parts to one another , the pragmatic aspect of the text the relation among users , and the verbal aspect all that concerns the materiality of the signs. It is through their institutionalization that the genres communicate with the society in which they are currently developing.

Just like any other institution the genres give testimony about the constitutive traits of the society to which they belong. This is why the existence of certain genres in a society, their absence in another, reveals a great deal about this ideology and permits us to establish it with more or less great certainty.

However, there was no dis- tinct and distinguishable genre in literature called the fairy tale until the seventeenth century, irst in Italy and more importantly in France, because there was no textual community to cultivate and institutionalize it and because the vernacular languages had not yet fully developed into literary languages. Without the appropriate conditions of reception and transmission in large groups of textual or literate communities, the fairy tale could not have established itself as a genre.

Within these communi- ties, the oral performance, recitation, and communication continued to play a major role. According to Brian Stock, a textual community is a microsociety orga- nized around the common understanding of a script. As he explains: [T]he rise of a more literate society in the eleventh century automati- cally increased the number of authors, readers, and copiers of texts everywhere in Europe, and, as a consequence, the number of persons engaged in the study of texts for the purpose of changing the behav- ior of the individual or group.

This, in nuce, was the rationale behind much reformist and some orthodox religious agitation, to say nothing of communal associations and guilds. These textual communities were not entirely composed of literates. The minimal requirement was just one literate, the interpres, who understood a set of texts and was able to pass his message verbally to others. The manner in which the individuals behaved toward each other and the manner in which the group looked upon those it considered to be outsiders were derived from the attitudes formed during the period of initiation and education.

The unlettered and semilettered members thereby conceptualized a link between textuality, as the script for enactment of behavioral norms, and rationality, as the alleged rea- sonableness of those norms. It is with the rise of textual communities, court entertainment, schools, reading societies, academies, literary associations and institu- tions, and salons and the interaction with oral traditions of storytelling that the formation of the fairy tale as genre took place.

And this forma- tion made the tale linguistically malleable, accessible, and purposeful as a memetic linguistic formation that carried relevant information about the survival of the species, in particular, the survival of individuals, and representatives of different social classes who are bent on improv- ing their status and condition in society. The form and information constitute its psychological appeal and explain why the brain gradually recognized basic fairy tale types through a cognitive module. As memes cultural replicators or public representations particular fairy tales were endowed with and recognized as having great value in communities and societies.

Their memetic value resides in their potential to assist human beings to become more alert to particular signs, to improve their situa- tions, and to adapt more successfully in a changing environment. Moreover, they will only be effective if they can mutate and blend in altered and adapted forms that respond to environmental transformations. Selection favours memes that exploit their cultural environment to their own advan- tage.

This cultural environment consists of other memes which are also being selected. The meme pool therefore comes to have attributes of an evolutionarily stable set, which new memes ind it hard to invade. This leads to a troubling problem. Again, to quote Dawkins: However speculative my development of the theory of memes may be, there is one serious point which I would like to emphasize once again. This is that when we look at the evolution of cultural traits and at their survival value, we must be clear whose survival we are talking about.

Biologists, as we have seen, are accustomed to looking for advantages at the gene level or the individual group, or the species level according to taste. What we have not previously considered is that a cultural trait may have evolved in the way that it has, simply because it is advanta- geous to itself. Fairy tales provide us with hope that some relevant transformation is possible. Jean-Michel Adam and Ute Heidmann One way we do our choosing, despite the selishness of genes and memes, is through cooperation. Put another way, even a gene recog- nizes the importance of cooperation for its own sake.

A gene cannot reproduce itself and proliferate without the assistance of other genes. Neither can a meme, and the fairy tale cannot be understood as genre if we do not take into account the manner in which it interacts with and depends on other genres. As soon as there is a text—that is, the recognition of the fact that a series of enunciations form a complete communication—there is an effect of generictity, that is, an inscription of this series of enunciations into a particular practice of discourse.

The genericity is a socio-cognitive necessity that relates each text to the inter-discourse of a social formation. A text does not in itself belong to a genre, but it is placed in relation to one or many genres at the point of production as well as at the point of reception-interpretation. It is best deined by its relationship to other genres as it keeps mutating. Each text develops its own dynamic by activating centrifugal and cen- tripetal forces, a dynamic that is important to analyze in itself before comparing it to another text that has its own dynamic. Through a com- parative and textual discourse analysis, we mean the comparison of the respective dynamic of the textual and trans-textual forces of two or more texts.

This type of comparison differs from the use of comparison in the studies of folklore and literature in that it does not approach the texts through their static characteristics the occurrence of motifs, genetic traits, intertextual traces, etc. If we draw and build upon their ideas, we can see that to analyze a literary fairy tale and the genre of the fairy tale entails: 1 determining the text and its place in a sociocognitive discursive formation; 2 comparing it with other fairy-tales texts of its period; 3 comparing it with texts of other generic formations; 4 understanding the linguistic elements that constitute its proper forces and constitute its dynamic force within the genre of the fairy tale; 5 analyzing its transformation beyond its original publication, that is, to study its reception in different sociohistorical con- texts as well as new texts that are produced and interrogate the original text; 6 recognizing the mediation of oral and literary tales that interact with one another to bring about mutations.

In general, the approach of Adam and Heidmann is an explicit critique of how folklorists have tended to approach literature or tales that have become literary: According to our discursive concept of text, the meaning of written tales is generated by this complex interaction of textual forces such as thematic-semantic coniguration, textual composition and micro- linguistic texture, with text-transcending forces such as genericity, inter- texutality, paratextuality and cotextuality. Folklore studies put the main focus on the examination of motifs and themes, i.

We argue that the complex meaning of a written tale is produced by the speciic linguistic, textual and discursive articulation of the chosen motifs and themes, while folklore studies often assume that the meaning of a tale is simply inherent in a universal grammar of motifs and symbols. Certain fairy-tale texts have become formative and deinitive, and they insert themselves into our cognitive processes, enabling us to establish and distinguish patterns of behavior and to relect upon ethics, gender, morality, and power. As the fairy-tale genre formed itself and was formed by myriad tellers and writers, they and their publishers, listeners, readers brought their tales in relation to other fairy tales and genres, and they made some of them special, or took a special interest in tales that we have made canonical.

They copied them and changed them, and as they took hold of these tales, the tales took hold of them. The tales have evolved in response to changes in the environment, its own linguistic properties and potential, and the particular social institutions of diverse cultural groups through- out the world. To a certain extent, it is impossible nowadays to speak about the fairy tale, especially a canonical tale, narrowly as a printed text, for it has transcended both the oral and literary in iconic forma- tions that depend on the technology of the radio, cinema, advertising, Internet, and so on.

Canonical fairy tales are complex memes that are a result of the conlicting forces of cultural production. They are special and relevant because we cultivate them as special and relevant in our speech and in our writings and images. Very few folklorists and critics have examined fairy tales from an evolutionary psychological perspective, despite the fact that fairy tales deal opulently with evolution of the human species under particular cultural conditions that often engender crises.

All of these situations incite similar questions: What must an individual do to adapt to a new and unexpected situation? Does a person become heroic through a special kind of adaptation? How will the heroine or hero survive? What does a person have to do to maintain power so that she or he can survive? How must one protect oneself in a dog-eat-dog world? Are there alternative ways of living and reproducing the species that do not involve the transgression of other bodies?

In some respects I believe that we have been attracted to fairy tales because they are survival stories with hope. They alert us to dangerous situations, instruct us, guide us, give us counsel, and reveal what might happen if we take advantage of helpful instruments or agents, or what might happen if we do not. They communicate the need to be oppor- tunistic, to exploit opportunities, to be selish so we can survive. They have arisen out of a need to adapt to unusual situations, and many of these situations are similar the world over so that many of the same types of tales have arisen and been disseminated and transformed so that new generations will learn to adjust to similar situations in chang- ing environments.

All tales want to stay alive in us, and they compete for our attention. We choose a particular metaphorical tale to be more precise and effective in what we want to express. Yet, each tale in its mutated form must articulate why it is still necessary and relevant in a changed environment and whether its impact is positive or negative. It is a tale about predators and how to deal with them. In my book The Trials and Tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood, I demonstrated that the origin of the literary fairy tale can be traced to male fantasies about women and sexuality and to conlicting versions with regard to the responsibility for the violation in the tale.

In particular, I showed how Charles Perrault and the Grimm Broth- ers transformed an oral folk tale about the social initiation of a young woman into a narrative about rape in which the heroine is obliged to bear the responsibility for sexual violation. Such a radical literary transformation is highly signiicant because the male-cultivated liter- ary versions became dominant in both the oral and literary traditions of nations such as Germany, France, Great Britain, and the United States, nations that exercise cultural hegemony in the West.

Indeed, the Per- rault and Grimm versions became so crucial in the socialization process of these countries that they generated a literary discourse about sexual roles and behavior, a discourse whose fascinating antagonistic perspec- tives shed light on different phases of social and cultural change. In discussing this development, however, I did not examine how it might be a linguistic and memetic form related to evolutionary theories about instincts, adaptation, and survival. Therefore, I should like once more to summarize my arguments about the sociopsychological implications of the changes made by Perrault and the Grimm Brothers and conclude by considering how the tale has evolved up to the present and why it is still so popular.

None of these motifs, it must be borne in mind, are particular to the times of Perrault and the Grimms, or to our very own times of rabid violence and violation. The tally of Red Riding Hood tales is quite impressive. Thanks to his exhaustive study of tales and motifs in the ancient world, however, we now have a much more comprehensive grasp of the memetic and epi- demiological formation of canonical fairy tales. If we accept the latter premise, then we can accept the hypothesis of widespread diffusion of folktale, with deviant and misrecollected ver- sions by forgetful or inaccurate storytellers easily corrected by those with better memories.

What we should guard against is the idea that tales will be reinvented in more or less identical form by different societies as they proceed through progressive stages of civilization, a fantasy of nine- teenth-century proto-anthropology, or that because a large number of popular tales use a inite number of motifs, then oral storytellers simply shufle the motifs around to make new tales.

There are indeed instances where two convergent tales can become confused, or where one tale seems to borrow from another, but on the whole[,] hybrids, common as they are, still remain marginal in the process of diffusion of tales. The more examples of any given international tale-type we study, the more clearly we can see the integrity and logic of the tale.

They gradually had to be congealed in a stable form to become canonical, so to speak, and though one cannot precisely detect each step in the formation of a classical literary tale, the more information we gather about the spread of the motifs the more light we will shed on why and how a tale becomes memetic. In it he incorporated many Latin translations of vernacular prov- erbs. Because many of the proverbs originated among the uneducated countryfolk, Sigebert of Gembloux ca. A certain man took up a girl from the sacred font, and gave her a tunic woven of red wool; sacred Pentecost was [the day] of her baptism.

The girl, now ive years old, goes out at sunrise, footloose and heedless of her peril. A wolf attacked her, went to its woodland lair, took her as booty to its cubs, and left her to be eaten. They approached her at once and, since they were unable to harm her, began, free from all their ferocity, to caress her head. If Egbert imposed Christian features in this fashion, then the redness in the story told by the common people could have had a general apotropaic signiicance that the Latin poet particularized with a religious dimension when he appropriated it.

When a tale evolves through the discursive appropriation of oral and literary transmission, this germ remains and is at the heart of its memetic appeal. It is the constant interaction between what Bakhtin called primary and secondary speech genres that constituted the epidemiological dissemination of this canonical fairy tale and all the other canonical narratives. The little girl arrived and knocked at the door. Take some of the meat which is inside and the bottle of wine on the shelf. Let me go outside. When the little girl was outside, she tied the end of the rope to a plum tree in the courtyard.

Are you making a load? He followed her but arrived at her house just at the moment she entered. She is shrewd, brave, tough, and indepen- dent. Evidence indicates she was probably undergoing a social ritual connected to sewing communities the maturing young woman proves she can handle needles, replace an older woman, and contend with the opposite sex. In some of the tales, however, she loses the contest with the male predator and is devoured by him.

There is no absolute proof that the above synthetic tale pieced together by the astute French folklorist Paul Delarue was told in the exact same form in which he published it. Perrault revised some kind of oral tale that featured a young girl endangered by a predatory wolf to make it the literary standard-bearer for good Christian upbringing in a much more sophisticated manner than Egbert or oral storytellers. Moreover, his fear of women and his own sexual drives are incorporated in his new literary version, which also relects general male attitudes about women portrayed as eager to be seduced or raped.

In this regard, Perrault began a series of literary transformations that have caused nothing but trouble for the female object of male desire and have also relected the crippling aspect of male desire itself. What are the signiicant changes he made? First, she is donned with a red hat, a chaperon,56 making her into a type of bourgeois girl tainted with sin since red, like the scarlet letter A, recalls the devil and heresy.

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Second, she is spoiled, negligent, and naive. Third, she speaks to a wolf in the woods—rather dumb on her part—and makes a type of contract with him: she accepts a wager, which, it is implied, she wants to lose. Fifth, she is swallowed or raped like her grandmother. Sixth, there is no salvation, simply an ironic moral in verse that warns little girls to beware of strangers, otherwise they will deservedly suffer the conse- quences.

Sex is obviously sinful. It was translated into English by Robert Samber in and into other European languages. The Grimms made further alterations worth noting. Here the mother plays a more signiicant role by warning Little Red Riding Hood not to stray from the path through the woods. Little Red Riding Hood is more or less incited by the wolf to enjoy nature and to pick lowers.

Instead of being raped to death, both grandma and granddaughter are saved by a male hunter or gamekeeper who polices the woods. Only a strong male igure can rescue a girl from herself and her lustful desires. What constituted its memetic quality? If memes are selish, as Dawkins has declared, the persistence of a story that presents rape relevantly in a discursive form to indicate the girl asked to be raped, or contributed to her own rape, can be attrib- uted to the struggle among competing memes within patriarchal soci- eties that tend to view rape from a male viewpoint that rationalizes the aggressive male sexual behavior.

Yet, it is not entirely negative as a meme, and it is a meme that has mutated, especially in the past thirty-ive years, under strong ideo- logical inluences of the feminist movement. Perrault did not dispute the fact that men tend to be predatory, but he shifted the respon- sibility of physical violence and the violation of the body to the female, and since his communication it the dominant ideology of his times shared by many women and perhaps ours , his story competed with all others and became the dominant meme and remains so to this day.

As dominant meme, it does not simply convey the notion that women are responsible for their own rape, but it also conveys a warning about strangers in the woods, the danger of violation, and an extreme moral lesson: kill the rapist or be killed. Used or transformed as a warning tale, it reveals that the tale is open to multiple interpretations and also has a positive cultural function. Certainly, it is very dificult to change sexual behavior. At times, Pinker minimizes the connection between sexual drives, social reinforcements, and social power that still enable males to exercise their domination in various ways, but he also fortunately recognizes the sig- niicance of the feminist challenge to the way rape is displayed, trans- mitted, and narrated in Western society.

If we have to acknowledge that sexuality can be a source of conlict and not just wholesome mutual pleasure, we will have rediscovered a truth that observers of the human condition have noted throughout history. The great contribution of feminism to the morality of rape is to put issues of consent and coercion at center stage. The ultimate motives of the rapist are irrelevant.

I want to close with some brief remarks about a remarkable ilm that relects upon the possibility for cultural transformation or change. She is picked up on a highway by a serial rapist and killer, and because she is so street smart, she manages to turn the tables on him, grab his gun, and shoot him. She then takes his car but is arrested because the rapist miraculously survives.

Two detectives interrogate her, but largely due to their male prejudices, they do not believe her story about attempted rape. In prison Vanessa succeeds in escaping while the two detectives follow leads from people they interview that convince them that the rapist was really lying.

When she arrives, she bravely beats him to a pulp, and the astonished detectives, who had wanted to help her, show up only to witness how Vanessa can easily take care of herself. The contested representations suggest that there is another way of viewing desire, seduction, and violation. If there are really such things as memes— and I am convinced there are—and if memes can inluence us and be changed as our behavior is transformed, it is important that we take the theory of memes and fairy tales themselves more seriously.

As we know, tales do not only speak to us, they inhabit us and become relevant in our struggles to resolve conlicts that endanger our happiness. Although there is some truth to these assumptions, they conceal the deep cross-cultural and multilayered origins and meanings of these pan-European tales that also have fasci- nating connections to northern Africa and the Orient, including the Middle and Far East.

Of course there can be no denying that the tales are culturally marked: they are informed by the languages that the writ- ers employed, their respective cultures, and the sociohistorical context in which the narratives were created. In this regard one can discuss the particular Italian, French, German, or English afiliation of a tale and also make regional distinctions within a particular principality or nation-state.

The truth value of a fairy tale is depen- dent on the degree to which a writer is capable of using a symbolical linguistic code, narrative strategy, and stereotypical characterization to depict, expose, or celebrate the modes of behavior that were used and justiied to attain power in the civilizing process of a given soci- ety. Whether oral or literary, the tales have sought to uncover truths about the pleasures and pains of existence, to propose possibilities for adaptation and survival, and to reveal the intricacies of our civilizing processes.

Historical Background For the past three hundred years or more scholars and critics have sought to deine and classify the oral folk tale and the literary fairy tale, as though they could be clearly distinguished from each other, and as though we could trace their origins to some primeval source. As I have stated in the previous chapter, this is an impossible task because there are very few if any records with the exception of paintings, drawings, etchings, inscriptions, parchments, and other cultural artifacts that reveal how tales were told and received thousands of years ago.

In fact, even when written records came into existence, they provided very lit- tle information about storytelling among the majority of people, except for random information that educated writers gathered and presented in their works. Naturally, the oral folk tales that were told in many different ways thousands of years ago preceded the literary narratives, but we are not certain who told the tales, why, and how. We do know, however, that scribes began writing different kinds of tales that relected an occupation with rituals, historical anecdotes, customs, startling events, miraculous transformations, and religious beliefs.

The recording of these various tales was extremely important because the writers preserved an oral tra- dition for future generations, and in the act of recording, they changed the tales to a greater or lesser degree, depending on what their purpose was in recording them.

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There is no evidence that a separate oral won- der-tale tradition or literary fairy-tale tradition existed in Europe before the medieval period. Graham Anderson has performed a great service for folklorists and serious scholars of the fairy tale by demonstrating how Greek and Roman myths contributed to the generic development of the literary fairy tale by studying oral and literary sources in the pre- Christian ancient world. It does not seem that folktales, including fairy tales, are memorized in verbal detail but according as they deal with matters of concern to the community, and in terms of stereotyped characters and narrative patterns.

The pattern has its own internal logic which does not necessarily depend on material probability or a plot with strict cause and effect, as does the novel, at least in theory. The general pattern must satisfy the common desire for a marvel and a satisfactory outcome. How this occurred, where it occurred, and exactly when it occurred are dificult questions to answer with precision because the tales developed as a process largely through talk, conversations, and performances that caught the imagination of people from different social milieu and were gradually written down irst in Latin and then eventu- ally in different vernacular languages, when they became more accept- able in the late Middle Ages.

As more and more wonder tales were written down in Latin and vernacular languages from the twelfth to the ifteenth centuries, they constituted the genre of the literary fairy tale, and writers began establishing its particular conventions, motifs, topoi, characters, and plots, based to a large extent on those developed in the oral tradition but altered to address a reading public formed largely by the clergy, aristocracy, and the middle classes. The tales that were told cut across different classes and segments of a particular society—rural, urban, and court. The threatening aspect of wondrous change, turning the world upside down, was something that these classes always tried to channel through codiied celebrations like Carnival and religious holidays.

This must mean that the Cocaigne mate- rial belongs to the oldest of oral traditions, otherwise it would not have been written down as soon as man started wielding the pen. Their ingredients—consisting of formulaic elements, individual motifs, and stock themes—are part of a widespread oral culture that has continued to the present day. In addition, details of this oral tradition continue to crop up in written literature, which then forms its own traditions, some- times—but not necessarily—interacting with the oral transmission of these same stories. The establishment of literacy was, among other things, a way to police the use of language through schooling, religion, and legislation of laws. It is extremely dificult to describe what the oral wonder tale was because our evidence is based on written documents, and there are many types of wonder tales with diverse plots and characters, bound intricately with customs and rituals, that are often inexplicable.

Gen- eral theories about the origin and spread of the folk tales leading to the formation of the literary fairy tale were irst conceived at the beginning of the nineteenth century and have been elaborated and contested up through the twenty-irst century. The Brothers Grimm believed that fairy tales were derived from myths that had been religious at one time, but storytellers had gradually discarded their religious connotations, and the tales became secular wonder tales.