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Her life was as ordinary as that sentence suggests, until she was sent to the coastal town of Hastings in to recover from pregnancy complications. Feeling restless without her usual responsibilities, Gatty became fascinated by Dr. She began spending days at the coast, attaching scientific names to the seaweeds she observed and making detailed notes. Her children helped sort and identify seaweeds, as well as accompanied her during what became frequent visits to the seashore, and her husband Alfred happily negotiated logistics with her publisher. When publicly discussing her scientific work, Gatty couched her science writing as a means to support her family.

With ten children, this certainly had merit, but the fact was that Gatty found great intellectual satisfaction from discovery. Such sentiments hardly paint a picture of a woman dutifully writing to boost the family coffers. Two seaweed specimens preserved by Gatty: Chorda filum left and Bellotia eriophorum right.

Andrews Herbarium in Scotland. Many women were in fact full participants in natural history as specimen collectors. However, this did not always equate to social acceptance of the hobby and virtually never resulted in adequate recognition. Margaret Gatty was already an established literary presence, having published Parables from Nature in , when she published the two-volume British Seaweeds in The book contained images and detailed descriptions of about two hundred species of seaweeds, based on fourteen years of collection, study, and correspondence with other phycologists, both male and female.

In British Seaweeds and in her assertive communication with other scientists, Gatty made it clear that she viewed herself as an expert to be respected for her knowledge. Perhaps this was because she got the last laugh: although barred from formal societies due to her gender, Gatty was invited to publish a letter to the editor in the renowned The Annals and Magazine of Natural History in During her life, Gatty clearly marched her seaweed hiking boots to the pinnacle of algae studies in Britain.

Every action Mrs. Murphy argues that as a surrogate mother, Mrs. Benjulia might be a vivisectionist She is somewhat effective in her manipulations of those around her, but not successful in her overall goal. As a result, she continuously escalates her tactics until she suggests that Carmina is an illegitimate child and thus ought to be disinherited, even though she knows this to be untrue Gallilee is greedy and shallow, and even if Heart and Science does not indicate that this is solely because of her scientific training, science is clearly a principal cause.

Gallilee was not born without a sense for beauty or a sense for conduct; her consistent objectification of others came later. When she was a young woman, Mrs. Gallilee did indeed have the roots of proper Victorian womanhood, with selflessness and sympathy in full force. Gallilee marries for money as a result of all this, not love, indicating that her mercenary nature already existed before her scientific education. However, when her sister marries better than her to a Scotch nobleman , Mrs. All her earthly interests centred now in the cultivation of her intellect.

She started on that glorious career, which associated her with the march of science.


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A year of learning did not just grant her scientific knowledge, it also damaged her sense for conduct, reshaping her sight to see animals as objects, a far cry from the young woman of great sympathy she once was. Christine Ferguson claims that Mrs. Ferguson argues that Mrs. However, this focus on the pleasures of the interior self overlooks Mrs. This tendency existed in her from early on, her circumstances exacerbated it, and once she failed in the most obvious route economic display , she turned to science as a substitute.

When Miss Minerva the ill-tempered governess of the Gallilee daughters asks why Mrs. Now, Mrs. Gallilee is being disingenuous here; she obviously does care about her social standing to a degree that belies her words, but there is a kernel of truth in what she says. Gallilee has set herself a goal of social success and pursues it by any means necessary: economics and science are all means to an end, which is to appear more successful than everyone else in particular, her sister, with whom she compares herself incessantly, such as on pp.

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The pleasure she obtains from manipulating Carmina is definitely part of her motivation, but everything she does—spend money on flowers and carriages, host scientific soirees, attempt to disinherit Carmina—is primarily in pursuit of her own social standing. She will be successful by any means necessary. Their reading had to be prescribed so as to protect their virtue and strengthen their faith. The problem is, then, that scientific knowledge, as Arnold feared, does not contribute to the senses for beauty and for conduct.

Or, as Ruskin argued, that science actively works against them. Gallilee that is worth quoting at length:. See the lively modern parasites that infest Science, eager to invite your attention to their little crawling selves. Follow scientific inquiry, rushing into print to proclaim its own importance, and to declare any human being, who ventures to doubt or differ, a fanatic or a fool […] Absorb your mind in controversies and discussions, in which Mr. Always Right and Mr. Never Wrong exhibit the natural tendency of man to believe in himself, in the most rampant stage of development that the world has yet seen.

And when you have done all this, doubt not that you have made a good use of your time. Michael Faraday, the physicist of the early nineteenth century, would have completed most of his work near the beginning of what Kargon calls the era of the scientific devotee. Gallilee had a predisposition toward selfishness that drew her toward science, but science amplified her selfishness in a positive feedback loop. A woman of science exacerbates the defect, but the defect is there regardless of gender. By the s, science is selfish, and so therefore someone trained to think scientifically will objectify what they observe.

One critique of vivisectionists was that though they claimed to be working for the advancement of medical knowledge, they were actually interested in only their own glory; Heart and Science advances this critique through Dr. That he pursues his research not to save lives, but out of selfish reasons, is driven home when he commits suicide when someone else finds the cure he has been seeking.

If Benjulia was the sole scientist in the novel, Heart and Science would be only a critique of the ethics of vivisection. The focus on the link between Mrs. Gallilee does not just see animals scientifically, she sees everything scientifically: pets, Niagara Falls, flowers, music, the sky, poetry, other human beings. For many Victorians, including Frances Power Cobbe who was, in addition to an antivivisectionist, a prominent suffragist women were supposed to be the moral centre of the home, and as a consequence, the nation.

Gallilee and Dr. Benjulia , but that they can themselves become the objectifiers when they follow the link from objectivity to objectification. If women are the moral centre of the home and the nation, and yet can still be corrupted by scientific sight, if science can cause a woman to turn on her own children and other charges , then how dangerous must it be? By including a woman of science in Heart and Science , Collins shows that the selfish epistemology of science threatens the moral foundations of the nation.

There are a few contrasting figures in the novel, designed to represent alternatives to its villains and their ways of seeing. I have already mentioned Carmina a little and will say more about her shortly, but now I want to briefly touch on a different un-selfish alternative way of seeing. The American physician who helps Ovid, however, never appears on the page, is never even assigned a name: the reader only knows him through the notes that Ovid reads and uses to successfully treat Carmina.

In remaining anonymous, he proves that he is the opposite of Dr. She proves adept at manipulating some members of the household to do her bidding, particularly Mr. Like Sherlock Holmes, Mrs. Gallilee even has superior vision of events she did not actually witness.

When Mr. Gallilee smuggles their children out the house, to avoid a confrontation with his wife, the household servants describe what they saw of Mr.


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  7. Introduction;
  8. Even though she did not physically behold the events described, she sees them more completely than those who did. Scientific sight may objectify, but it does reveal truths to the observer, albeit only ones that the observer can put to their own ends. A significant factor in Mrs.

    Gender in 19th Century Britain

    Appealing to his selfishness is the predominant way Mrs. Thanks to her better understanding of human selfishness, Mrs.

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    Gallilee keenly observes the motives and actions of those around her. Carmina cannot see Mrs. Carmina is unable to perceive truth to the extent that her aunt can. For the most part; she is the only person to notice that despite claiming to be preoccupied with chemical experiments, Dr. Benjulia has no chemical stains on his hands , indicating he must be spending his time in some other line.

    Similarly, the good-natured Mr. Gallilee is so good-natured that, like Carmina, he is unable to see evil where it exists. But this does not last. Gallilee is correct, in which she reaffirms her faith in Miss Minerva. Miss Minerva leaves Mrs. Gallilee can better see human beings as they are , but Carmina sees them as they ought to be. This blindness proves her undoing. At one point, the narrator opines that if Mrs. Her lack of a sense for conduct leaves her unable to perceive the senses for conduct of others.

    Some of Mrs. Others fail because they employ Miss Minerva, and Carmina has made Miss Minerva less selfish than she used to be. Gallilee is unable to conceive of minds that do not work like her own. Twice, had the subtle force of circumstances defeated her […] When some people talked of Fatality, were they quite such fools as she had hitherto supposed them to be?

    The mismatch between the world as it is and Mrs. Even though she has been advised that this is most likely not true, her self-interest has overridden her seeming rationality—she wants it to be true so much that she discounts all evidence not in favour of it, like a man of science clinging to a theory of his own devising despite empirical evidence being arranged against it. As Mrs. At this point Mrs. Her vision, consumed by selfishness, has gone from asset to liability. Gallilee extracts their children from the household, which causes Mrs. Where is God? It would be easy to imagine a female scientist novel where the novel ended with conversion, where the woman of science abandoned her scientific sight and reasserted the sense for conduct that Wilkie Collins, Frances Power Cobbe, and so many other Victorians saw as the purpose of women.

    Her scientifically raised daughter also reforms, finally coming to understand love at the climax of the novel.

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    In the world of Heart and Science , the link between objectivity and objectification is too intrinsic, Mrs. Research Presentation: Students will prepare a short presentation minutes of the research they have conducted for their final paper. Presentations should outline the arguments of the final paper and contextualize the paper within the major themes of the course. Following each presentation, the class will offer written suggestions for deepening the arguments, contextualization, and analysis for use when revising the final version of the paper. Course Policies, Resources, and Expectations: Access Services: Bryn Mawr College is committed to providing equal access to students with a documented disability.

    Students needing academic accommodations for a disability must first register with Access Services.

    Students can call to make an appointment with the Coordinator of Access Services, Deb Alder, or email her at dalder brynmawr. Once registered, students should schedule an appointment with the professor as early in the semester as possible to share the verification form and make appropriate arrangements. Please note that accommodations are not retroactive and require advance notice to implement. More information can be obtained at the Access Services website. Please notify the instructor in advance if you will be absent from class. If you are absent, you are responsible for contacting one of your classmates to find out what you missed.

    Citation of Sources: All sources used in papers for this course must be properly cited. Papers submitted via Moodle anytime after the deadline will be considered one day late. Paper Formatting and Submission: Unless I specify otherwise, all written assignments for this course should be double-spaced and written in point Times New Roman font with 1-inch margins on all sides using Chicago citations.

    On the day that the short essay is due, you must submit an electronic copy to Moodle by am in order for it to be considered on time. Please note that this is before the start of class. Research Guide: Syllabus: This syllabus is a flexible document. I reserve the right to alter it as needed during the semester. It offers free, individual writing tutorials for assignments at all levels of coursework.

    Tutors can provide assistance with grammar issues and feedback on writing in progress, and the Writing Center also offers specialized ESL tutoring. Receiving critical feedback on writing in progress is useful for all writers. I highly encourage you to visit the Writing Center located on the first floor of Canaday Library as you work on your papers for this course. The Writing Center also has tutors who specialize in public speaking, which you might find useful as you plan your final research presentations.

    Lilan R. Furst Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, : Daston and G. Pomata Berlin, , Outram, eds.

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    Abram, ed. New York: Norton, : Mary Wyer Routledge, : New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, Agee, Eve. Ainley, Marianne Gosztonyi. Buffalo, N. Alic, Margaret. London: Women's Press, Ambrose, Susan A. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, Ausejo, Elena, and Carmen Magallon. New Brunswick, N. Bonner, Thomas Neville. Cambridge, Mass. Bonta, Marcia. Broomhall, Susan.

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    SHEFFIELD, Suzanne Le-May 1967-

    Manchester: Manchester University Press, Browne, Janet, and Sharon Messenger. Agnes Mary Clerke and the Rise of Astrophysics. New York: Cambridge University Press, Cassell, Joan. Donnison, Jean. New York: Schocken Books, Duden, Barbara. Fausto-Sterling, Anne. New York: Basic Books,