These waves begin in body, speech, and mind, and ripple through our lives and the lives of those around us. Although we often think of ethics as rules, choosing an ethical way of life is also an expression of deep interconnectedness. Yet, says Michael Stone, he was one of those rare people who could sit still and watch the rainfall. He wore shades, he always had his collar up, and he seemed like [ At this time he is being taken care of by doctors and his sangha [ Our hands are in anjali mudra.
Anjali is a Sanskrit word meaning prayer. We bring both palms together so we can feel both sides of the body. The palms are a fist distance from the face, and the fingertips are in line with the nose. Then you bow from the […]. If the book were a slogan it might read: Express yourself right to the end. Last week we did a face to face guided meditation practice where we allowed […]. Below the belt is uddiyana bandha. Above the belt is pizza. Never mind about nirvana — it was all a joke. You might as well trust your […]. Brown rice practice.
Nothing added. Are we here to gain enlightenment? Are we here to be free? Or are we here to appreciate our lives? Or, is there a difference? Zen can be quite a performance sometimes. Especially when the teacher is letting one fireball after another out of their mouth. People say that practicing Zen is difficult, but there is a misunderstanding as to why.
It is not difficult because it is hard to sit in the cross-legged position, or to […]. The Buddha famously compared his teachings to a snake. A snake? My dharma, he said, is like an elephant, like a raft, like a city. Like a snake. He is speaking in the language of his time. Every dream is set in a small village, and the really cool thing is that I finally get to speak French. It is an ur-text, regarded much as the bible is here, the literary roots of so much writing that would follow.
One can trace themes, tropes, echoes back to this text. The Zen tradition […]. I beg you, oh Master, please help me and make me rich. I would like to look at grasping and non-grasping and what I would call creative engagement. What meditation and the path can help us to do […]. Can a parent leave their child alone without abandoning them? This unstructured and unintegrated state of mind is the foundation of all healing. The defensive nature of most of our mental activity. We build up our selves out of our defenses but then come to be imprisoned by them.
A conversation with Pat Rockman and Stephen Batchelor May, Pat Rockman: I should probably tell you briefly about my background, would that be helpful?
Stephen Batchelor: Yes, indeed it would. I did […]. I studied in the Tibetan Shambhala tradition and this influence will likely show up in my talk tonight. There is a position open for you at any time you choose it. It is not a teaching position at a new yoga studio down the street nor is it to become a mediation instructor for elderly, youth […].
I apologize in advance to those who are new if this approach causes you any confusion. I admit that what I have to offer tonight may […]. Part Two This is part two of Eating the Dharma. The Buddha is proposing an […]. You can buy two kinds of seats: hard seats and soft seats. The hard seats are just planks of wood. As we spend time here […]. The following is a transcript of a year-long series Michael Stone gave on bringing ethical awareness into every-day life. These talks were given in a large warm loft space across from Trinity Bellwoods Park in downtown Toronto.
There were regularly at least fifty people in attendance and almost everyone arrived by bicycle. Wings We have […]. Nuclear Peace Good […]. Where is the […]. No one else has ever been here, at this moment. Sexual Healing So […]. October 2, We Could we explore in our own lives how these teachings allow us to see ourselves in a different way? Our hearts are strained. We lose people we love. Our bodies are impermanent and […]. September 25, It might seem like the mind is watching the body. We might get the sense […]. September 18, Fresh When you can bring attention to the beginning of the inhale, concentration develops.
If you can keep attention one inhale after another, and the body is at ease, then dualities might begin to fall away. And meditation practice can feel […]. Notes on a talk by Michael Stone, Toronto. September 10, Eight When Jung was eight years old he found it hard to be around other people and this caused him anguish. He felt a split between his outer world, and the inner world of dreams and images. It was hard to engage with other […]. September 3, The little retreat is to go hide in the mountains and be with the water.
The great retreat is to disappear in the capital. Here we are in the fall, back at […]. It has not been unusual to hold bearing witness retreats in places of suffering, where unresolved issues remain, and not necessarily human issues. Some retreats have happened in slaughterhouses, bearing witness to the suffering of animals.
I try to bring all of the sides in question into the retreat, as much as possible. It one […]. People thanked me for encouraging them to do something. In my early years with the dharma, I think […]. If they are interconnected with the whole world, and […]. Notes by Mike Hoolboom with errancies, mishearings, conjectures. Notes by MH with errancies, mishearings, conjectures.
He felt […]. The text is called Uji. When you […]. In Judaism, trained professional scribes ritually copy a new Torah in conformance to millennia-old tradition, focusing the mind on each of its , letters, assuring accuracy. In Islam, calligraphy is the primary means of preserving the […]. Stephen Batchelor: Compassion […]. The precepts show how we lean away from our Buddha nature, and they are the road back. Form Welcome to the last talk of our precepts course. They are: ahimsa or not harming. Satya: the practice of honesty.
Brahmacharya: the wise use of sexual energy. And lastly aparigraha or the practice […]. This course looked at the five yamas from the first limb of Yoga and took them up as precepts: ahimsa not harming , satya honesty , asteya not stealing , brahmacharya wise […]. This is a transcript of a talk by Michael Stone with some insertions, amendments, riffs by the note-taker as part of an online Precepts Course at Centre of Gravity in This course looked at the five yamas from the first limb of Yoga and took them up as precepts: ahimsa not harming , satya honesty , […]. Notes on a talk at Centre of Gravity by Mike Hoolboom and Pat Rockman, May 13, Context Sometimes, when I get really quiet and I can live inside the breath, it can be hard to tell where the inhale stops and the exhale begins.
It feels like part of the inhale is the exhale, […]. This is a transcript of a talk given by Michael Stone as part of an online Precepts Course at Centre of Gravity in This course looked at the five yamas from the first limb of Yoga and took them up as precepts: ahimsa not harming , satya honesty , asteya not stealing , brahmacharya wise use of […]. A talk given at Centre of Gravity, Toronto, March 18, Three Trainings In Korea, in the seventh century, a form of Buddhism began to flourish that was based in meditation, as opposed to a more scholarly, text-oriented approach.
Because of its emphasis on sitting practice, it was close to the Japanese Zen schools, and […]. This is a transcript of a talk given by Michael Stone with some extra riffs from the author as part of an online Precepts Course at Centre of Gravity in This text is a collage. This course looked at the five yamas from the first limb of Yoga and took them up as precepts: ahimsa not harming , satya […]. How we understand this universe to have come about from the big bang up until […].
The way you turn the page, skipping over certain words, allowing others to reshape the tongue, each instant of your reading creates a unique path of […]. From Centre of Gravity, Toronto. Written by Mike Hoolboom. Why are you here? The answers, when they come, are predictably fantastical. Perfect strangers open to reveal a dizzying array of emotional quicksand, family trials, terminal illness. Notes on a talk by Elaine Jackson on death. This is the last evening we will dedicate to death and dying, at least until Michael returns.
I did not prepare a dharma talk, but I will say a couple of things: Death is happening around us all the time. We live in a culture that somehow has made death seem distant and foreign. A monk asks […]. Over time you can feel your body breathing without you interfering so much. When you start practicing the […].
Notes on a talk by Michael Stone at Centre of Gravity, January 14, Koans Koans are often teaching devices that take the form of a dialogue between two people. They were dished orally, and eventually collections would form, often attached to a particular teacher who would use them sequentially in a koan curriculum. The […]. You take an object: candle, breath, mantra or sound, and it gives you an anchor, a place to return to.
The closer you get to the breathe, the softer […].
The Buddha insisted that his community rely on everyday householders for support. If […]. We come from such different traditions, different identity kits. Our elders built centres and lineages, and these are so important, though perhaps you could say they clung […]. Centre of Gravity talk, May 28, Heavy Last week someone made a comment that was cleverly disguised as a question.
Can you remember? This is his last name, his family name, Gotama. I wonder if we might be able to try that out, if […]. One of its primary features is that a new kind of religious life was developing, not only because of the Buddha but by contemporaries like Hillel, […]. Notes on a talk by Michael Stone at Centre of Gravity, Toronto, May 13, Strain Religion is an attempt to respond to the strain at the centre of every heart. Every child has a religious feeling.
Before it was educated out of you. We settle into the quiet and we bliss out for a while. But then, if we are really aware, we discover that we may […]. In the text I feel like Shantideva is saying, in so many words, emotions […]. Shanti means peace and Deva means deity. Meditation practice never works the way you think it will. Fukushima is the same way. Guns are terrifying. For instance, he had the idea to start a yoga fest, and it had to happen in the most beautiful building in the city, featuring local talent who […]. Do those things go together?
What is the feeling tone? How does it feel in the body? Yavanas in Mathura are attested by Mahabharta and Yuga Purana. They are known to belong to ancient Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. According to Dr A. Pusalkar, sage Upamanyu mentioned in the Rgveda I. Zimmer etc postulate a possible connection of the Uttaramadras with the Kambojas, who probably had both Iranian as well as Indian affinities Vedic Index, I. Grierson; cf: Kamboja verb shavati represents, sound by sound, the Young Avestan sauuaiti 'to go' Dr Michael Witzel, Persica, 9, , p Grierson wrote in that 'the Kambojas, a barbarous tribe of north-western India, either spoke Sanskrit with an infusion of Iranian words to which they gave Indian inflexions or else spoke a language partly Indo-Aryan and partly Iranian' The Language of the Kambojas , Journal of Royal Asiatic Society , pp In the light of above disclosures from Jataka gatha on the Kambojas, the views of Dr Grierson had completely changed and, thence-afterwards, Dr Grierson started considering the Kambojas undoubtedly a tribe of the Iranians.
Dr Grierson wrote: "This gatha, by itself, establishes a close connections between the ancient Kambojas and the ancient Iranians with whom the destruction of noxious or ahramanic creatures was a duty" Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, , p , Dr G. That killing of lower animals is a Zoroastrian religious practice is attested from the passages in Mazdean books like the Videvati XIV. The Magi priests of the Persians They even seem to take a delight in the employment and kill, as readily as they do other animals, ants and snakes, and such like flying or creeping things Hence, this Mahabharata evidence also alludes to non-Indo-Aryanism i.
Assalayanasutta II. Arya and Dasa This social practice of the Kambojas differentiated them from the Indo-Aryans who believed in Brahmanical varnasharmadharama and thus practiced chatur-varna or four-class social system. Even the Ganapatha on Panini's rule II. One thing more: The ancient Kambojas have also been referred to as Asura warriors in texts like Markandeya Puraana Verse 8.
There is reference to eighty-four select warriors from the Kambu Kamboja clan accompanied by Kambu fighters set on a ferocious war with the deva forces of goddess Durga [Glory of the Divine Mother Devi Mahatmyam , p , Sri Sankaranarayanan]. It is also very interesting to note that great epic Mahabharata also mentions one king Chandravarman of the Kambojas, who has been referred to as an incarnation of a great Asura Chandra, addressed as ditija.
This reference also alludes to Iranian affinities of the Kambojas. Asura was the name by which the ancient Indo-Aryans addressed their ancient Iranian neighbors. The same word is found as Ahura in ancient Persian traditions. Initially, the word Asura did not have the negative demoniac connotations which it got only in later times. The Iranians, on the other hand, called the Indo-Aryans as Daivas on account of their being Deva worshippers which term also carried similar demoniac connotations.
The noted scholars like C. Lassen, S. Levi, M. Witzel, J. Charpentier, La Valle Poussin, A. Hoffman, A. Keith, A. Macdonnel, G. Nariman, E. Kuhn, H. Bellow, A. Pusalkar, S. Sen, D.
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Bhandarker, S. Kambujiya also Kambaujiya was the name of several great Persian kings of Achamenian dynasty. Bellow writes: " Darius succeeded, about B. C to the empire founded by Cyrus Kurush , and enlarged and consolidated by his son and successor Cambyses Kambojia, Kambohji. The scholars are not unanimous on the location of ancient Kamboja. Wilson ; Afghanistan J.
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Raychaudhury, D. Bhandarkar ; Pamir , Badakshan Dr J. Vidyalankar, Raymond Allchin, Dr G. Grierson, Dr S. Chatterjee, Dr V. Aggarwala ; Arachosia D. Sircar, J. Fillozat, E. Aiyanger, Dr P. Gokhale ; and Cambodia R. Banerjee , with their capital at an unidentified place called Dvarka, a name with Maga Associations. In ancient literature and inscriptions, the Kambojas are frequently listed with the tribes of Uttarapatha such as Gandharas, Yavanas, Madras, Sakas etc. At several places in Mahabharata , the Kambojas are referred to as a tribe of Uttarapatha i.
Bhuvanakosha section of Puranas also specifically locates the Kambojas in the Udichya or north-west division of ancient India. This fact clearly proves that the 'Kamboja' of ancient Sanskrit literature invariably referes to a tribe and country of that name located in the Uttarapatha or north division of ancient India. The country was located beyond Gandhara , in the extreme north-west in Central Asia. Therefore, Kamboja of ancient Sanskrit literature must not be confused with trans-Gangetic Kamboja or Kambuja centered at Mekong basin which country came into existence several centuries after Christian era.
Raychaudhury, Dr B. The modern 'Galcha' language comprises seven main dialects viz. It has been pointed out that the Galcha dialects spoken in Pamirs and countries on the head waters of Oxus mostly still have the continuants of the ancient Kamboja 'shavati' in the sense 'to go' Op cit. It has also been pointed out that the former language of Badakshan was a dialect of Galcha which has been replaced with Farsi only in the last few centuries Op cit, p , Dr Grierson.
Yagnobi dialect spoken in Yagnobe region in Zerafshan valley the Doab of Oxus and Jaxartes in Tajikstan also contains, to this date, a relic from verb 'shavati' of the ancient Kambojan language. Ptolmy also calls the region fed by Jaxartes and its tributaries as Komdei. Ammianus Marcellinus calls it as Komadas. Komudha in Indian traditions is one of the six dvipas stated to be situated beyond the sea.
And is also name of mountainous region, north of mount Meru Pamir. In anterior epic period, this probably was the name given to high table land of the Tartary, to north of Himalaya, from where the Aryans may have pushed their way southwards into Indian Peninsula and preserved the name as a relic of old mountain worship Thomson.
This identification if true may explain as to why the Yagnobi dialect of Yagnobe region in Zerafshan valley in Tajikstan still contains the relics of ancient verb 'shavti' of the Kamboji language. M Shastri, Dr S. Chatterje, G. Grierson, R. Pandey, Dr. Devahuti, Dr B. Upadhyaya, Dr J. Kamboj and other scholars. It is also important to note that Kamboja and Bahlika Bacteria are mentioned in the same breath in several verses in Mahabharata e.
Valmiki Ramayana also mentions the Kamboja and the Bahlika in the same breath:. Dr Zimmer as well as authors of Vedic Index postulates a connection between the Iranian Uttaramadras and the Kambojas. In Aitareya Brahmana 8. Madra king Shalya of Mahabharata has been referred to as a Bahlika Pungava i. This implies that in the remote past Vedic age the Iranian settlement of Madras was located in Bahlika Bacteria Przyluski, Dr A. Keith, Dr I. Macdonnel, Dr V. Aggarwal, Dr M. Singh, Dr J. Kamasutra of Vatsyayana refers to a peculiar custom prevalent among the Bahlika as well as Strirajya countries i.
This reference suggests that there was either a tribal closeness or a geographical proximity between the Bahlika and Strirajya people. The Hunas in 5th c AD were located in west parts of Oxus country i. The Huna forces meet with complete disaster. This suggests that the Kambojas were in close neighborhood to Hunas and were thus located in eastern Oxus country in 5th c AD.
The Kambojas did not give battle to Raghu Kambojah samare sodhum tasya viryam aniivarah, Raghu 4. Conference, , pp , Dr J. It is important to note that Badakshan and the Central Asian region around it is still very famous for its quality cultivation of walnuts which thus correctly points to this region being the land of ancient Kambojas India In Kalidasa, p 61, B. Uapadhyaya; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, , p India in Kalidasa, , p 61, B.
Arabic sources also make references to famous mines of Wakhan and Anderab Geographical Econom. Studies, p 46, Dr Moti Chandra. A blanket kambala is also a desirable object kamaniya. Commenting on the above statement of Yasaka about Kambojas, ancient commentator Acharya Durga noted as under:. The terminal point of Raghu's journey refers to head-waters of Ganga Ganga.
Raghu, 4. There is also a very important reference to kichaka bamboos and birch bar trees in Raguvamasa bhrijesu marmarobhutah kichaka. Hiuen Tsiang 7th c AD refers to one Kumito as an independently ruled provincial unit in Pamirs east of Khotlan stated to form one of the 17 political provinces in former Tukharistan region.
Wu-k'ong refers to it as 'Kiomeche', while T'ang calls it 'Kumi'. Ancient Muslim writers refer to it as Kumed or Komadh. Al-Maqidisi refers to the people living in this region as Kumiji. The scholars have identified this name with Komedon, Cambothi or Kambuson of the Greek writings. He launches war expedition onto the region of north from Kashmir :.
Immediately after the Kambojas, he meets the Tukharas. Based on this trail of victories of Lalitaditiya, scholars have located the Kambojas in the Eastern Oxus country as immediate neighbors to Tukharas who were located in western Oxus country including Bahlika Geographical and Economical studies, p 38, Dr Motichandra; Bharatiya Itihaas ki Mimansa, pp , Dr J. It is also noteworthy that both Rajatrangini as well as V. D lists the Kambojas among the neighboring tribes to Strirajya. Mahabharata further attests that the Uttarakurus were located to the south of Nila Parvata and to the north of Mt Meru.
Kamboj, Richard L. Thompson, Bertrand L. Blavatsky, I. Thus, Uttarakuru of Sanskrit tradition probably referred to the region comprising north-west of Sinkiang province of China, the Tien-Shan ranges and south-eastern parts of Kirgyzstan. Obviously, this Rajatrangini evidence places all these people, except the Daradas in the trans-Himalayan central Asia.
This region is indeed to the north-west of Daradas and borders with the Tukhara country located in the north-west, as Kalhana's Rajatrangini attests for us. This Oxus country was occupied by Tukharas in early second c BC. The land of 'Kichaka bamboos' growing along Shailoda river, referenced both in Raghuvamsa as well as in Ramayana, is situated between the Pamirs Meru and Altai Tag Mandara Mt , and the river valleys between these two are still overgrown with forests of Kichaka Bamboos.
Himalyan region i. The Kamboja location in western Oxus country as neighbors to both the Yavanas and the Sakas is thus pretty much certain. The Kanoj of Idrisi, in fact, is the Sanskrit Kamboj. Due to misplacement of dot, the Kamboj got changed to Kanoj in Persian transcription. Al-Idrisi belonged to 11th c AD. Obviously, the boundaries of ancient Kamboj had considerably shrunken down at times of Idrisi so that he had to differentiate Badakshan from the Kamboj located in its contiguity i.
Otherwise also, the Kanoj of Idrisi can't be the Kanauj of Uttar Pardesh since the Kanauj of Uttar-Pardesh does not share boundaries with Badakshan and it is also located thousands of miles away from Badakshan. Parja Bhatta the author of fouth Rajatrangini while writing about history of Moghul dynasty in India writes emperor Babur as a Yavana king from Kambhoja. This view is beautifully reinforced from the fact that Yidga, a sub-dialect of the Galcha Munjani is still spoken in Ludkoh on the south of Hindukush cf: op cit, p , Dr G.
With passage of centuries, the trans-Hindukush Kambojas remained essentially still Iranian in culture and religion, while those in the cis-Hindukush region appear to have come under Indian cultural influence. This probably is the reason as to why the ancient Kambojas are attested to have both Indian as well as Iranian affinities. This view is powerfully substantiated from Mahabharata verses II. Obviously, these verses attest two Kambojas The above fact is also supported from Ptolemy's Geography which references a geographical term Tambyzoi on the Oxus in Badakshan and also an Ambautai people located on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropanisadae region Geography 6.
Interestingly, eminent indologists like Dr S. Singh; also Dr L. Pande, , p These Kambojas are associated with the Rshikas of Trans-Hindukush. Obviously the Parama-Kambojas lived in what today comprises the Galcha speaking region of Central Asia. These Kambojas were allied with the Lohas and the Rshikas against Arjuna's troops. Ashoka's R. E V; Yone-Kambojesu Later, some sections of the Kambojas had moved still further onto Arachosia , which fact is attested from Aramaic version of 'Shar-i-Kuna inscriptions' of king Ashoka found in Kandhar in which the Aramaic version of the Ashoka's inscriptions is said to have been intended for the Kambojas.
Prof E. Benveniste, in his discussion of the Asokan Greco-Aramaic inscription from Kandahar , suggested that it may have been addressed to the Yonas and Kambojas in that region, though no mention of such peoples is made in the text of Kandhar inscription " The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 4, Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, c. Dr Michael Witzel holds similar views. The earliest and most powerful reference endorsing the Kshatriyahood of the Kambojas is Panini 's Ashtadhyayi.
Panini 5th c BC refers to the Kamboja Janapada and mentions it as one of the fifteen powerful Kshatriya Janapadas of his times, inhabited and ruled by Kamboja Kshatriyas. This is the most powerful evidence attesting that the ancient Kambojas were Kshatriyas or warriors by professions. Harivamsa informs us that the clans of Kambojas, Sakas, Pahlavas, Yavanas etc were formerly Kshatriyas. It is also interesting to note that Harivamsa calls this group of Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas and Paradas as Kshatriya-pungava i.
From this statement also, it is clear that the Kambojas were Kshatriyas Dr B. Sudakshina Kamboj, the brave king of Kambojas had joined the Bharata war leading one Akshauhini army comprising the Kamboja, Yavana and Shaka warriors. Sudakshina was the chief Sanapati of this formidable joint army of Kambojas, Yavanas and Sakas, which army has been likened to a mass of loury clouds accompanying the storm! Dr Law: "We thus find the Kambojas leading a very large and powerful army to the field of Kurukshetra and laying down their lives like valiant Kshatriyas which they were" Some Kshatriya Tribes of Ancient India, p , Dr B.
The legend of divine sword detailed in Shanti parva of Mahabharata also powerfully endorses the Kshatriyahood of the Kambojas. The sword, as a symbol of Kshatriyahood was awarded to a certain Kamboja king by Kuvalashava alias Dhundhumara, the celebrated king of Kosala, who in turn, had passed it on to king Muchukunda a Yavana king?
Bhagavatam Purana verse 2. There are numerous references in the Puranas, Mahabharata, Ramayana and other ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature which powerfully document the Kshatriyahood of the Kambojas. Hence it is safe to conclude that the Indianised version of the Iranian Kambojas belonged to the Kshatriya varna in the Indo-Aryan Society. Kambojas find repeated reference in ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature including Atharvaveda , Panini 's Ashtadhyayi , Yasaka 's Nirukuta, Mahabharata , Ramayana , numerous Puranas , Kautiliya 's Arthashastra , Buddhist Jatakas , Jaina Canons , several Sanskrit plays and numerous other ancient texts.
Yaska BC? Thus it can be seen that Acharya Yasaka not only enlightens us on the language of Kambojas but also attempts to give an etymology of name Kamboja. Yasaka's comments on the language of the Kambojas shavatir gatikarmaa Kamboje. Several ancient commentators have commented on these Yasaka's etymological terms i. The 'kam' in Kamboja implies kamaniya. They Kambojas do not follow proper rules in the choice of their diet, they use mlechcha food since they belong to a mlechcha country.
They also do not observe proper rules in choice of women i.
The ancient lexicons have also rendered 'kamaniya' in the comely, pleasant, or beautiful sense. Law also translates 'Kamaniya' in the pleasant or beautiful sense Some Kshatriya Tribes, p Thus, the commentators like Acharya Durga, Swami Brahammuni Parivrajika etc have correctly interpretted the underlying meaning of 'Kamaniya' in Yasaka's etymology of Kamboja. Hence, Acharya Sikand Swami's interprettation of Yasaka's 'kamaniya' in the negative sense with rerence to Kambojas is in error and therfore, unaceptable. In spite of their luxurious living, they Kambojas make use of kambalas blankets since their country is extremely cold.
And therefore being Kambal. It also provides powerful evidence on Kambojas' opulence and the luxurious lives they lived. The connection of kambalas with Kambojas reveals that the Kamboja was a very cold country. Therefore, the Kambojas habitually wore woolen blankets out of fashion, as well as necessity to protect themselves from the rigors of cold cf. Dr Law.
Hence, Acharya Yasaka's Nirukuta provides very informative hints on Kambojas's luxurious dress and clothing. In Rig Veda V. A special variety of blankets known as pandu-kambala Panini IV. Gandhara is also known to the Atharvaveda for its fine wool. The kings of Kamboja presented to Yudhishtra innumerable skins of the best kind, and blankets made of wool, of the soft fur of rodents and other burroughers, and of the hair of cats,--all inlaid with threads of gold. There is further reference to princes of Kamboja sending unto Yudhishtra as tribute innumerable skins, black, darkish, and red, of the deer Kadali, as also numberless blankets of excellent textures.
Numerous references to kambalas also show that that ancient Kamboja was very cold country and hence was a mountainous land. These food stuffs were counted amongst the most precious and solicitable foods in ancient India and still are considered the most expensive delicacies from Indians' point of view. Hence these comments of Yasaka on Kambojas. There are ancient Buddhistic references to the merchants visting Kamboja land with a desire to harvest wealth [ Yassa atthaya gacchama Kambojam dhana-haraka Ankuravatthu section of Petavatthu verse ].
Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa also attests to immense treasures i. And Mahbharata also bears strong witness to extreme riches of ancient Kambojas Kambojah All these ancient literary references powerfully attest to the opulence and luxurious life styles of ancient Kambojas. According to Dr Aggarwala, an important economic feature of the Kamboja was its special breed of horses. According to Herodotus , it was the richest strapy of Achamenian empire and paid in tribute proportionately much larger than all the rest talents of gold dust.
Undoubtedly, most of the gold came from Bahlika and Kamboja. Gold deposits are known in several tracts of North-West Frontier and quantities of gold were recovered from alluvium of the rivers in this region. In nutshell, we gather the following useful information, directly or indirectly, on Kambojas from Yasaka and the later commentatators on his Nirukuta. As stated before, Panini , in his Ashtadhyayi , notes the Kamboja as one of the fifteen prominent Kshatriya Janapadas in the north-west division.
Sutra IV. Here the identity of Janapada and the powerful Kshatriya clans settled there is repeated. These ruling Kshatriyas inhabiting these Janapadas were, as we are informed by Katyayana 2nd c BC , governed by two-fold constitutions; some were monarchies ekarjat and others were republics Sanghas. The kings who ruled over these countries were Kshatriyas, and Panini's sutra 4.
India as Known to Panini, , p , Dr V. The above nomenclature holds good for all the Kshatriya tribes so named by Panini in sutras 4. And per Sutra 4. Katyayana 3rd c BC has expanded the scope of Panini's sutra 4. And he states that like Kamboja, the words like Choda , Kadera , Kerala , Saka , Yavana also denote each not only the country and the Kshatriya tribe inhabiting the country, but also the Kshatriya king ruling over it op cit, p , Dr Bhandarkar; Op cit, p , Dr B.
Law; op cit p 30, Dr J. Panini has also read Kamboja in the Ganas to IV. The Ganapatha on Panini's rule II. The foremost among the sons of Diti known by the name of Chandra and handsome as the lord of the stars himself became on earth noted as Chandravarman, the king of the Kambojas.
Long ago, this country was ruled by a king named 'Kamboja'. Perhaps, it was from this king 'Kamboja' that the country came to be called Kamboja Puranic Encyclopaedia, by Vettam Mani. Among the Kshatriya tribes in the great Epic, the Kambojas occupy a very prominent place. With his army comprising Kambojas as well as the Sakas and Yavanas which looked like multicolored loury rainclouds moved by gusty winds, Sudakshina, the chief of the Kambojas had started his march on to the aid of Kaurvas.
The mass of his one akshauni army looked indeed like a swarm of locusts, which on reaching Kurukshetra had merged with the Kaurava army and disappeared among them. Sudakshina Kamboj was the chief Sanapati of the composite formidable army of the Kambojas, Yavanas and the Sakas. Sudakshin Kamboj was also one of the ten very intelligent, mighty, powerful, illustrious, purushavyaghrah, lionlike, Mahabahu Generals or Sainapatis of the composite Kaurava army. These Generals have been descrbed as bestowers of charities and performers of Yajnas.
The mighty-armed king Duryodhana had selected from amongst them ten very brave and intelligent warriors and made them the Generals placing an Akshauhini of troops under each of those best of men, viz. Each of these Generals was ceremoniously brought before the Kaurava army with proper honor and were consecrated for the prestigious office. And thus appointed, all warriors, with all their followers, became desirous of doing what was most agreeable to king Duryodhana.
In the enumeration of great heroes on Kuru side, Bhishma extols the prowess of Sudakshina of Kambojas of whom he says: ' in my opinion, Sudakshina of Kambojas is equal to a Ratha and he will certainly fight in the battle with the enemy desiring the success of your objects. The prowess of this lion among the chariot warriors exerted on your behalf , O best among the kings, will be seen by the Kurus, in battle as equal to that of Indra himself. The best of the chariot warriors under him are strikers with fierce force. Duryodhana in his message to Pandavas gives a very important place to the Kambojas by placing them side by side with the greatest heroes on his side: thus he says that his immense army with Bhishma as the current which cannot be crossed, with Drona as the alligator which cannot be approched, with Karna and Salya as a swarm of small fishes and the Kamboja as mouth giving out flames , was a veritable truth Op cit.
Duryodhana again extolls the prowess of Sudakshina of Kamboja as well as of Bhishma, Drona Acharya , Kripa Acharya , Kritvarma, Bhurisravas, Vikarna and Bhagadatta etc, describing them all as 'Great Maharathas, high born, recklessly fearless and, in might and fight, more than a match even to the three worlds united together.
Brave Sudakshina was one of the few Maharathas or great heroes on the field Op cit. While fighting, he roared like a lion sinha. In the final and deadly duel, Sudakshina had seriously wounded Arjuna and sent him into a terrible swoon but finally was overcome and fell a magnificent martyr to Kuru cause. Sudakshin Kamboj was indeed one of the great heroes of Mahabharata war. Besides Bhishama and Duryodhana, even Karana and Vasudeva have highly acknowledged the great role played by Sudakshina as well as the Kamboj soldiery.
He further applauds Sudakshina along with other select Maharathas of Bharata war at the conclusion of war addressing to Arjuna thus:. O weilder of the Gandiva! Numerous were the warriors seen in this war, each of whom of great prowess, each of whom was no less than god Indra himself, but none of those could stand before you for long. O Arjuna! Mourning the death of Sudakshina, Gandhari addresses Vasudeva thus:. Behold how that irresitible ruler of the Kambojas with shoulders like those of a bull, though deserving of being stretched at his ease on the Kamboja blankets, is now lying amid the dust:.
Duryodhana also grieviously laments the death of the great heroes of his army including Sudakshina thus: Behold that mighty bowman, Jalasandha slain by Satyaki And that hero, the great car-warrior, the ruler of the Kambojas, who proudly came to battle for my sake, caring the least for his own life ever prepared to lay down his life. When I see him Sudakshina and also Alambusha and many other allies of mine dead and gone, what purpose can I have for remaining still alive? Sudakshina's younger brother addressed as Kamboj had also participated in the destructive war of Kurukshetra and had fought ferocious duels on Kaurava's behalf.
Like Sudakshina Kamboja, this young prince is also decribed as very tall and exceedigly handsome, having a face as beautiful as the full moon and eyes resembling lotus petals. As this prince fell fighting, it appeared as if a tower of gold or a summit of the golden Sumeru had collapsed. The fact that this young Kamboja prince had survived 16 days of destructive war shows him to have been an accomplished warrior.
The Mahabharata repeatedly talks of the mighty and immense army of the Kambojas, calling it a flooded river, a swarm of locusts covering the lands, a grand army of wrathful warriors etc etc. The Kamboja cavalry has been described as extremely fast yayur. In the hot battle field, the Kambojas have been described as 'elephants gone berserk' durvarana nama Kamboja ; Kambojas of fierce deeds, war-intoxicated warriors, biting their lips in rage as they fight damshitah krurakarmanah Kamboja yuddhadurmadah ; Kambojas as Death-Personified samana.
The Katas and Kambojas living in the north-west have been described as expert in warfare and famous for their courage. According to Harivamsa Purana Sagara , son of Bahu was born in exile and as he grew up, he learnt of his father's fate from her mother and decided to punish his enemies. He raised a powerful army and invaded Ayodhiya. After a fierce fight, Sagara was able to defeat the alliance. He had totally destroyed the Haihayas and Talajanghas, and was about to annihilate the five assisting hordes when Sagara's priest Vasishta intervened. Vasishta advised Sagara not to destroy these hordes but let them go after divesting them of their Kshatriyahood.
King Sagara, listening to his spirtual guide, forced the Kambojas and Yavanas to shave their heads full, the Sakas to shave half of their heads, the Pahlavas to grow beards and the Paradas to wear their hair free. He also forbade these former Kshatriyas from performing Svadhyaya and Vasatkara, thus divesting them of their Kshatriyahood i. This story appears to have been altered by puranic writers in order to explain cetain peculiarities of these foreign tribes by suggesting that their peculiar characteristics were due to their defeat at the hands of king Sagara cf: Some problems of Kushana and Rajput Hisory, p 73, Dr Sircar; Pre-Aryan and pre-Dravidian in India, p 87, S.
Levi etc. The expression half-shaven or shaven full does not mean 'shaven over half or full of the head', but that their hair was cropped short. This was normal custom of these peoples just as it is among many people in West today and copying the Westerners among civilized people of Asia as well. The Indians who normally wore their hair long must have invented the story of Sagara degrading them by having their heads shaven or half shaven to show their disapproval of the custom History of Ceylone, Vol I, part I, p 92, Dr S.
It is obvious that the Hindus, who by religion were ordained to have a sikha or a top knot looked askance towards those who had all their hair cropped short cf: Geographical and Economical Studies in Mahabharata, Upayana Parva, J. Vol XVI. Scholars identify this mountain Kambu in Afghanistan. Sharma, Univ of Magadhah, , p The Silver mines of Badakshan have been famous since Ancient times. Pande, , pp And more importantly, the Arthashastra informs us that the Kambojas followed republican constitution.
Kautiliya contrasts the 'varta. Kautiliya's Arathashastra, , p , Dr R. Kautiliya further informs us that the 'shastr-opajivin' Shrenis or Corporations of the Kambojas and Surashtras etc Pusalkar, Dr R. The republicanism of the Kambojas is also attested from the Rock Edicts of king Ashoka araja-vishaya There have been six Buddhist councils altogether since the beginning of the Buddhism. Out of them, the first four councils were instrumental in regard to discussing on the essence of Buddhism.
Thus, this article attempts to explore the availability and authenticity of texts of the councils. In this council, there was considerable agitation over the admission of Ananda to the Synod. Mahakassapa is said to have entertained misgivings regarding his admission on the ground of his failure to reach to Arhathood, which he did actually reach to on the eve of the session of the Council. But in spite of this achievement and of the belief and convention that the attainment of Arhathood emancipates a man from all guilt and punishment, Ananda was arraigned by the monks on several charges which he explained as follows: 1 He could not formulate the lesser and minor precepts, as he was overwhelmed with grief at the imminent death of the master.
He also did this for their edification. The charges are differently framed in the other Vinayas. According to the Dulva, two other charges also seem to have been brought against Ananda, first that he failed to supply drinking water to the Buddha though he had thrice asked for it and secondly, that he showed the privy parts of the Buddha to men and women of low character. His replies were 6 that the water of the river was muddy, and 7 that the exhibition of the privy parts would rid those concerned of their sensuality. These replies may be taken as having satisfied the Assembly.
Another important item of business transacted at the First Council was the passing of the highest penalty Brahmadanda on Channa who was the charioteer of the Master on the day of the Great Renunciation. This monk had slighted every member of the Order, high and low, and was arrogant in the extreme. The penalty imposed was a complete social boycott. When the punishment was announced to Channa, he was seized with profound repentance and grief and was purged of all his weaknesses.
In short, he became an Arhat. The punishment automatically ceased to be effective. Briefly, the proceedings of the First Council achieved four results:. There is, however, a difference between the account of the Cullavagga and that of the Dulva regarding the trial of Ananda. According to the former, the trial took place practically after the conclusion of the main business, whereas in the Dulva it comes before his admission to the Council. The Suttas were recited by Ananda, and the Vinaya was recited by Upali.
The entire assembly of monks then recited the approved texts, this council went on for nine months. The specific ten points were: 1 Storing salt in a horn. The monks of Vesali had taken to wandering for alms with the specific goal of collecting money, to which the visiting monk Yasa objected. The orthodox followers of the Buddha believed that the monks of Vaisali were taking liberties with the rules prescribed in the Vinaya Pitaka. The council discussed the matter at length, but could not reach an agreement. This resulted in the great schism within the Order and led to the formation of the two divergent schools of thought.see
The first school advocated strict adherence to the age-old traditions of Buddhism and compliance with the original teachings of the Buddha. They were called The Sthaviravadins. The second group did not find a problem in having a liberal attitude towards the rules prescribed in the Pitakas and the deviations followed by the monks of Vaisali. They became known as the Mahasamghikas. The Dipavamsa mentions that the bhiksus of Vaisali held another Council which was attended by ten thousand monks. It was called the Great Council Mahasanglti. According to the Mahavamsa, a council of seven hundred theras compiled the Dhamma.
In the Samantapasadika, Buddhaghosa observes that after the final judgment, the seven hundred bhiksus engaged in the recital of the Vinaya and the Dhamma and drew up a new edition resulting in the Pitakas, Nikayas, Ahgas and Dharmaskhandhas which went on for eight months. The council is recognized and known to both the Theravada and Mahayana schools, though its importance is centred only to the Theravada school.